Russia’s FSB hired ‘criminal hackers’ to attack Yahoo

Two agents of Russia’s FSB spy agency and two “criminal hackers” were indicted Wednesday over a massive cyberattack affecting 500 million Yahoo users, the US Justice Department announced. The indictment unveiled in Washington links Russia’s top spy agency to one of the largest hacking attacks in history, carried out in 2014, and which officials said […]

Cyberspace in Iran: from negation to acceptance

Iran has an interesting history with cyberspace. The development of the infrastructure has always been behind public demand. Not only that, the legal status of using certain websites and apps has always been an issue. But improvement has been the case, however slow. The strategic importance of cyberspace and social apps in particular found crystal […]

Molecular Methods

Protein-Based Technique   lsozyme analyses Fatty acid profiles MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry Molecular methods to characterize, identify, and classify organisms do not depend on the subjective judgment of a human being as it might occur us-ing classical methods, but are based on the objective information (molecules) deriving from the target organism. Thus, molecular methods are increasingly […]

Cytology and Morphology

            “Wood fungi” are eukaryotic and carbon-heterotrophic (free from chlorophyll) organisms with chitin in the cell wall, reproduce asexually and/or sexually by non-flagellate spores, filamentous, immovable and mostly land inhabiting. Damage to wood in water by fungi is described by Jones and Irvine , Jones  and Kim and Singh . […]

rDNA Sequencing

                      PCR-amplification and subsequent sequencing of parts of the ribosomal DNA avoid the main limitations of RFLPs because the whole information of hundreds of nucleotides of the target DNA is used. rDNA sequences may be used for diagnosis and for phylogenetic analyses (dendrograms) on relationships […]

Further Molecular Methods

  DNA-Arrays DNA-arrays (DNA-chips, microarrays) are tools in medical, pharmaceutical, and biological diagnosis of pathogens (genotyping, pathotyping) (Beier et al. 2002; Wiehlmann et al. 2004). Basis is the increasing availability of sequence information of various viruses and bacteria.          One chip can carry up to 10,000 different DNA probes (e.g., oligonucleotides), which are […]

Microsatellites and Amplified fragment length polymorphism

    Microsatellites Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR) are hypervariable genomic regions characterized by short tandem repeat sequences of up to seven nucleotide units that are distributed throughout the genomes of most Eukaryotes (Powell et al. 1996). The variability of the number of repeat units at a particuIar  locus and the conservation of the […]

Species-Specific priming PCR

Species-Specific priming PCR (SSPP)

                   Species-specific priming PCR (SSPP) As an advantage of the sequence divergence among fungi, oligonucleotide sequences may be used to design species-specific primers for PCR. At first sight, SSPP seems to be a powerful molecular identification tool for fungi. Subsequent restriction of the amplicon as well as […]


The term mold originates from daily life and is not a taxonomic. name of a single systematic group (Reiss 1997; Killerand Morelet 1000). The Deuteromycetes (fungi imperfecti) constitute an artificial group and comprise a great variety of 20,000 -30,000 species of 1,700 genera of I-1 phomycetes and 700 genera of Coelomycetes.      The different […]

Applications of biogeography

    Biogeography has had a very important role to play in the development of our understanding of biology. For example it was biogeography that was the key to developing the theory of the evolution of life.    Today, not only does biogeographical research have important applications in a world of rapidly increasing human population […]