Wood fungi

  “Wood fungi” are eukaryotic and carbon-heterotrophic (free from chlorophyll) organisms with chitin in the cell wall, reproduce asexually and/or sexually by non flagellate spores, filamentous, immovable and mostly land inhabiting. Damage to wood in water by fungi is described by Jones and Irvine , Jones  and Kim and Singh . Soft-rot fungi belonging to […]

Wood Moisture Content

           As wood degradation by fungi involves enzymes, which are active in aqueous environment, and because hyphae consist of up to 90% of water, wood fungi need water. Water is also used for the uptake of nutrients, the transport within the mycelium and as solvent for metabolism. Without water, the metabolism […]

Temperature

With respect to the temperature, Table  the cardinal points for some wood fungi. A comprehensive investigation was completed in 1933 grouping the species into low-temperature (optimum 24 °C and below), intermediate-temperature (optimum between 24 and 32 °C), and high-temperature group (optimum above 32 °C) (Humphrey and Siggers 1933).    For three species, e.g., Gloeophyllum sepiarium, […]

Value and Acid Production by Fungi

             The  value influences germination of spores, mycelial growth, enzyme ac-tivity (wood degradation), and fruit body formation. The optimum for wood fungi is often in slightly acid environment of pH 5-6 and for wood bacteria at pH 7. Basidiomycetes have an optimum range of pH 4-6 and a total span […]

Light and Force of Gravity

  At first sight, light might have no significance for fungi, because fungi are carbon-heterotrophic. The vegetative mycelium including the rhizomorphs of Armillaria species and the strands of house-rot fungi grow in nature in the absence of light, namely in the soil and within trees or timber (substrate mycelium), or in buildings hidden behind wall […]

Sexuality

  The wood inhabiting Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes are either homothallic or heterothallic (Ryvarden and Gilbertson 1993). Homothallic fungi are self fertile, that is no second mating type is required for sexual reproduction. Fertilization takes place at the same mycelium.   Many Ascomycetes and about 10% of the Basidiomycetes belong to this type. Heterothallism includes both […]

Reproduction of Deuteromycetes

   Fungi that reproduce asexually (anamorphic fungi) are either yeasts or Deuteromycetes. The term “yeast” is descriptive and stands for any fungus that reproduces by budding.   Deuteromycetes (Fungi imperfecti, colloquially: molds) is an artificial assemblage of fungi that reproduce asexually by conidia (conidiospores), either as the only form for propagation (imperfect fungi) or additionally […]

Wood Cell Wall Degradation

 Enzymes and Low Molecular Agents  In view of the historical development of the research on wood degration by fungi, this chapter starts with the enzymes invoiveti in the de woody cell Null, although it is now commonly accepted that non-enzymatic low molecular weight metabolites are involved as precursors and / or co agentswith enzymatic cell […]

Wood Discoloration

The damage of wood by fungi is essentially caused by the degradation of the cell wall by fungi, which decreases the mechanical wood properties and substantially reduces wood use.        However, wood quality is also influenced by bacterial, algal and fungal discolorations (e.g., Grosser 1985; Zabel and Morrell 1992; Eaton and Hale 1993). […]

Molding

The term mold originates from daily life and is not a taxonomic. name of a single systematic group (Reiss 1997; Killerand Morelet 1000). The Deuteromycetes (fungi imperfecti) constitute an artificial group and comprise a great variety of 20,000 -30,000 species of 1,700 genera of I-1 phomycetes and 700 genera of Coelomycetes.      The different […]