Molecular Methods

Protein-Based Technique   lsozyme analyses Fatty acid profiles MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry Molecular methods to characterize, identify, and classify organisms do not depend on the subjective judgment of a human being as it might occur us-ing classical methods, but are based on the objective information (molecules) deriving from the target organism. Thus, molecular methods are increasingly […]

Light and Force of Gravity

  At first sight, light might have no significance for fungi, because fungi are carbon-heterotrophic. The vegetative mycelium including the rhizomorphs of Armillaria species and the strands of house-rot fungi grow in nature in the absence of light, namely in the soil and within trees or timber (substrate mycelium), or in buildings hidden behind wall […]

Competition and Interactions Between Organisms

Except for axenic laboratory cultures, there are only a few cases in which a natural substrate remains occupied by only one species. A known case is Oudemansiella mucida in standing, but dead trunks of Fagus sylvatica due to the production of the antifungal compound, mucidin. Instead, nearly every substrate accessible to fungi can support more […]



  Approximately 120,000 fungal species are described. If the numerical ratio between vascular plants and fungi of 1:6 in botanically well-examined regions, like Great Britain, however, is transferred to a global scale of 270,000 vascular plants, 1.6 million fungi might exist. That is, so far only about 10°A) of the actual fungal species are described […]

Wood Discoloration

The damage of wood by fungi is essentially caused by the degradation of the cell wall by fungi, which decreases the mechanical wood properties and substantially reduces wood use.        However, wood quality is also influenced by bacterial, algal and fungal discolorations (e.g., Grosser 1985; Zabel and Morrell 1992; Eaton and Hale 1993). […]


  To avoid microbial wood discoloration, the generally suitable measures against fungi (e.g., Liese et al. 1973; Liese and Peek 1987; Grog et al. 1991; Yang and Beauregard 2001) are listed in Table.     Felling in the cold season and fast processing of the stems through well coordination between forestry and wood industry reduces […]