Reproduction of Deuteromycetes

   Fungi that reproduce asexually (anamorphic fungi) are either yeasts or Deuteromycetes. The term “yeast” is descriptive and stands for any fungus that reproduces by budding.   Deuteromycetes (Fungi imperfecti, colloquially: molds) is an artificial assemblage of fungi that reproduce asexually by conidia (conidiospores), either as the only form for propagation (imperfect fungi) or additionally […]

Growth and Spreading

                   Vegetative Growth Simplistically, wood fungi live through two functionally different phases: the vegetative stage for mycelial spread and the reproductive stage for the elab-oration of spore producing structures. Rayner et al. (1985) extended the development of a fungus in arrival, establishment, exploitation, and exit. The vegetative, […]

Cytology and Morphology

            “Wood fungi” are eukaryotic and carbon-heterotrophic (free from chlorophyll) organisms with chitin in the cell wall, reproduce asexually and/or sexually by non-flagellate spores, filamentous, immovable and mostly land inhabiting. Damage to wood in water by fungi is described by Jones and Irvine , Jones  and Kim and Singh . […]

rDNA Sequencing

                      PCR-amplification and subsequent sequencing of parts of the ribosomal DNA avoid the main limitations of RFLPs because the whole information of hundreds of nucleotides of the target DNA is used. rDNA sequences may be used for diagnosis and for phylogenetic analyses (dendrograms) on relationships […]

Microsatellites and Amplified fragment length polymorphism

    Microsatellites Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSR) are hypervariable genomic regions characterized by short tandem repeat sequences of up to seven nucleotide units that are distributed throughout the genomes of most Eukaryotes (Powell et al. 1996). The variability of the number of repeat units at a particuIar  locus and the conservation of the […]

Red Streaking

Red Streaking Red streaking discoloration (known as “Rotstreifigkeit” in Germany) is one of the most common and important damage in seasoning logs and sawn lumber, occurring only in conifers (spruce, pine, fir) and recognized as a distinct condition in continental Europe.  The stripe-shaped to spotted yellow to reddish-brown discoloration extends in logs from both their […]

Protection

  To avoid microbial wood discoloration, the generally suitable measures against fungi (e.g., Liese et al. 1973; Liese and Peek 1987; Grog et al. 1991; Yang and Beauregard 2001) are listed in Table.     Felling in the cold season and fast processing of the stems through well coordination between forestry and wood industry reduces […]

White Rot

White-rot research has been reviewed by Ericksson et al. (1990) and Mess-ner et al. (2003). White rot means the degradation of cellulose, hemicellu-loses, and lignin usually by Basidiomycetes and rarely by Ascomycetes, e.g., Kretzschmaria deusta and Xylaria hypoxylon.  White rot has been classified by macroscopic characteristics into white-pocket, white-mottled, and white-stringy, the different types being […]

Soft Rot

The term “soft rot” was originally used by Findlay and Savory (1954) to describe a specific type of wood decay caused by Ascomycetes and Deuteromycetes which typically produce chains of cavities within the S2 layer of soft- and hardwoods in terrestrial and aquatic environments (Liese 1955), for example when the wood-fill  in cooling towers became […]

Wood Rot Protection

Protection focuses on fundamentals upon prevention of wood damage by fungi, and protection and preservation of wood (e.g., Willeitner and Liese 1992; Eaton and Hale 1993; Palfreyman et al. 1996; Murphy and Dickinson 1997; Zujest 2003; Goodell et al. 2003; Muller 2005).    Protection in the broader sense comprises non-chemical methods like organizational measures and […]