Molecular Methods

Protein-Based Technique   lsozyme analyses Fatty acid profiles MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry Molecular methods to characterize, identify, and classify organisms do not depend on the subjective judgment of a human being as it might occur us-ing classical methods, but are based on the objective information (molecules) deriving from the target organism. Thus, molecular methods are increasingly […]

Traditional Methods

Traditional Methods

  Determination keys and descriptions for Deuteromycetes are based on morphology, color, and development (conidiogenesis) of conidia and conidio genous cells  (Carmichael et al. 1980; Domsch et al. 1980; v. Arx 1981; Wang 1990; Hoog and Guarro 1995; Schwantes 1996; Kiffer and Morelet 2000; Samson et al. 2004). The fruit bodies of Ascomycetes and Basidiomycetes […]

Fatty acid profiles and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry

Fatty acid profiles   MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry Microorganisms synthesize over 200 different fatty acids. The presence of specific acids and their relative amounts are constant for a particular species. Since the 1960s, bacteria and fungi are identified by gas chromatographic analysis of fatty acids, which were previously derivatized to methyl esters. The technique has also […]

Wood fungi

  “Wood fungi” are eukaryotic and carbon-heterotrophic (free from chlorophyll) organisms with chitin in the cell wall, reproduce asexually and/or sexually by non flagellate spores, filamentous, immovable and mostly land inhabiting. Damage to wood in water by fungi is described by Jones and Irvine , Jones  and Kim and Singh . Soft-rot fungi belonging to […]

Physiology

     The wood inhabiting fungi as well as their colonization and damaging of wood are influenced by various physical/chemical and biological influences .            Physical/chemical factors comprise nutrients, water, air, temperature, pH value, light, and the force of gravity. Biological influences arise because of reciprocal effects between different organisms as […]

Air

      As aerobic organisms, wood fungi produce CO2, water, and energy by respira-tion and need therefore air oxygen . The energy production from wood, if only cellulose is consumed, is shown in Table 3.4. Aerobes, however, do not respire carbohydrates totally, but use intermediates for their metabolism. Fungal activity is affected by the […]

Wood Moisture Content

           As wood degradation by fungi involves enzymes, which are active in aqueous environment, and because hyphae consist of up to 90% of water, wood fungi need water. Water is also used for the uptake of nutrients, the transport within the mycelium and as solvent for metabolism. Without water, the metabolism […]

Temperature

With respect to the temperature, Table  the cardinal points for some wood fungi. A comprehensive investigation was completed in 1933 grouping the species into low-temperature (optimum 24 °C and below), intermediate-temperature (optimum between 24 and 32 °C), and high-temperature group (optimum above 32 °C) (Humphrey and Siggers 1933).    For three species, e.g., Gloeophyllum sepiarium, […]

Value and Acid Production by Fungi

             The  value influences germination of spores, mycelial growth, enzyme ac-tivity (wood degradation), and fruit body formation. The optimum for wood fungi is often in slightly acid environment of pH 5-6 and for wood bacteria at pH 7. Basidiomycetes have an optimum range of pH 4-6 and a total span […]