Brown Rot

Brown Rot is caused by Basidiomvcetes, which metabolize the carbohydrates cellulose and hemicelluloses of the woody cell wall by non-enzymatic and enzymatic action and leave the lignin almost unaltered , whereby the brown color develops.      Brown-rot fungi do not produce lignin degrading enzymes. There are how ever reports of lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase […]

Applications of biogeography

    Biogeography has had a very important role to play in the development of our understanding of biology. For example it was biogeography that was the key to developing the theory of the evolution of life.    Today, not only does biogeographical research have important applications in a world of rapidly increasing human population […]

Japan National Flag and National Anthem

  The Rising Sun Flag and “Kimi Ga Yo” are respectively the national flag and anthem of Japan. This was formalized in 1999 with the Law Regarding the National Flag and National Anthem.   National Flag   Nisshoki (The rising sun flag. Also known as Hinomaru) RATIO and POSITION height : width = 2 : […]

The China of the Past

The China of the past, with which we must begin because it has by no means entirely disappeared, took a very long time to acquire and develop its characteristic features. It then became a single entity, difficult to divide into the ‘periods’ beloved of historians. Over many centuries, through an interminable series of disasters and […]